Drone Pilot Training: Loading and Performance
[, Music ]: this tutorial will cover weight and balance compliance with the weight and balance limits of any aircraft is critical to flight safety operating above the maximum weight limitation compromises.
The structural integrity of an aircraft and adversely affects its performance operation with the center of gravity. Cg outside the approved limits, results in control, difficulty load factor is the ratio of the maximum load and aircraft can sustain to the gross weight of the aircraft.
The load factor is measured in G’s, which is the acceleration of gravity. If an aircraft is pulled up from a dive, subjecting the pilot to 3 G’s, he or she would be pressed down into the seat with a force equal to 3 times his or her weight load.
Factors are important for two reasons: it is possible for a pilot to impose a dangerous overload on the aircraft structures, and an increased load factor increases the stalling speed and makes stalls possible at seemingly safe flight speeds in a constant altitude, coordinated turn in any aircraft.
The load factor is the result of two forces: centrifugal force and gravity to maintain altitude. During a turn, the aircraft must sustain the loads shown at the chart on the right. The maximum Bank for the average general aviation aircraft is 60 degrees when an aircraft experiences a load, as in a turn, the speed at which the aircraft stalls increases.
This means that an aircraft with a normal unaccelerated stalling speed of 50 knots can be stalled. At 100 knots by inducing a load factor of 4 G’s. Weight and balance is very important in any pre-flight, as stressed earlier in the lesson, a center of gravity that is positioned in the wrong place on an aircraft causes accidents.
Other things to consider are gross weight, even if the center of gravity of the aircraft has not been displaced outside the envelope. The gross weight may be too high for the aircraft overloading the aircraft’s, structure can cause serious damage to the aircraft, and even small overloads can build up into larger damage.
Weight is the force with which gravity attracts a body toward the center of the earth. It is a product of the mass of a body and the acceleration acting on the body weight is a major factor in aircraft construction and operation and demands respect from all pilots.
The force of gravity continuously attempts to pull an aircraft down toward Earth. The force of lift is the only force that counteracts weight and sustains an aircraft in flight. The amount of lift produced by an airfoil is limited by the airfoil design angle of attack, AOA airspeed and air density.
To assure that the lift generated is sufficient to counteract weight loading and aircraft. Beyond the manufacturer’s recommended weight must be avoided if the weight is greater than the lift generated the aircraft may be incapable of flight.
The pilot should always be aware of the consequences of overloading an overloaded aircraft may not be able to leave the ground or, if it does become airborne, it may exhibit unexpected and unusually poor flight characteristics, if not properly loaded.
The initial indication of poor performance usually takes place during takeoff. Excessive weight reduces the flight performance in almost every respect. For example, the most important performance deficiencies of an overloaded aircraft are higher takeoff speed, longer takeoff, run reduced rate and angle of climb lower maximum altitude.
Shorter range, reduced, cruising speed, reduced maneuverability, higher stalling speed, higher approach and landing speed, longer landing role. The pilot must be knowledgeable about the effect of weight on the performance of the particular aircraft.
Being flown pre-flight, planning should include a check of performance charts to determine if the aircraft’s, weight may contribute to hazardous flight operations. Excessive weight in itself reduces the safety margins available to the pilot and becomes even more hazardous when other performance.
Reducing factors are combined with excess weight. The pilot must also consider the consequences of an overweight aircraft if an emergency condition arises, weight and balance control should be a matter of concern to all pilots, the pilot controls, loading and fuel management.
The two variable factors that can change both total weight and CG location of a particular aircraft. The removal or addition of equipment results in chain to the CGT before any flight. The pilot should determine the weight and balance condition of the aircraft.
Simple and orderly procedures based on sound principles have been devised by the manufacturer for determination of loading conditions. The pilot uses these procedures and exercises good judgment when determining weight and balanced the performance or operational information section of the aircraft flight manual contains the operating data for the aircraft, that is, the data pertaining to takeoff, climb range, endurance, descent and landing.
The use of this data in flying operations is mandatory for safe and efficient operation. The pressure of the atmosphere varies with time and altitude due to the changing atmospheric pressure. A standard reference was developed.
The standard atmosphere at sea level is a surface temperature of 59 degrees. Fahrenheit or 15 degrees Celsius and a surface pressure of 29.92 inches of mercury or one-zero-one 3.2 millibars a standard temperature lapse rate is one in which the temperature decreases at the rate of approximately 3.
5 degrees, Fahrenheit or 2 degrees Celsius per thousand feet. A standard pressure lapse rate is one in which pressure decreases at a rate of approximately one inch of mercury per thousand feet of altitude gain to 10,000 feet.
The more appropriate term for correlating aerodynamic performance in a non-standard atmosphere is density altitude. The altitude in the standard atmosphere corresponding to a particular value of air density density altitude, is pressure altitude corrected for non-standard temperature, as the density of the air increases lower density altitude aircraft performance increases.
Conversely, as air density decreases, a higher density altitude aircraft performance decreases, a decrease in air density means a high-density altitude. An increase in air density means a lower density altitude.
The density of the air, of course, has a pronounced effect on aircraft and engine performance, regardless of the actual altitude at which the aircraft is operating, it will perform as though it were operating at an altitude equal to the existing density altitude.
Air density is affected by changes in altitude, temperature and humidity. High-Density altitude refers to thin air, while low density altitude refers to dense air. The conditions that result in a high density altitude are high, elevations, low atmospheric pressures, high temperatures, high humidity or some combination of these factors.
Lower elevations, high atmospheric pressure, low temperatures and low humidity are more indicative of low density altitude. This concludes your introduction to aircraft performance. We hope you learned a lot.
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